Eswatini Country info

Welcome to Eswatini

eSwatini or Swaziland is the best and rare example for a whole country living in the old African traditions and beliefs. Hardly anywhere in the world you will find history and tradition carefully taken into the 21 century. A warm welcome and heartily hospitality, secure traveling throughout the country will make your stay special and unforgettable. Are you interested in plants, hiking, adventure holiday, handicraft, pleasant accommodation, excellent restaurants, exiting sightseeing or just relaxing at the pool side - read on and find your African dream holidays.

eSwatini Flag

The flag is rectangular, and its colors are red, blue and yellow. Each of these colors has a meaning:

  • Red stands for the battles of the people.
  • Blue stands for peace and stability.
  • Yellow stands for the resources

The flag also has a picture of a shield and spear. These two symbols stand for protection of our country from enemies. The shield is black and white to show that black and white people live together peacefully in Eswatini.

The Swazi people

Descend from the southern Bantu who migrated from central Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries together with the Xhosas and the Zulus, which belong to the Nguni subgroup. The Swazi ancestors, the Nkosi Dlamini, broke away from the mainstream of Nguni migrants led by Chief Ngwane, and settled in the region of the Pongolo river absorbing the Nguni and Sotho clans in the area..

By 1750 they had settled in the Hluti region in the south of the Kingdom, under King Ngwane 111of the Nkosi Dlamini clan. The country derives its name from a later King, Mswati 1. However, Ngwane is an alternative name for Eswatini and Dlamini remains the surname of the royal family, while the name Nkosi means King. The historical evolution of the autonomy of the Eswatini Nation was dictated by British rule of southern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1881 the British government signed a convention recognizing Swazi independence.

However, controversial land and mineral rights concessions were made under the authority of the Foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 in terms of which the administration of Eswatini was also placed under that of the then South African Republic (Transvaal). At the commencement of the Anglo-Boer war, Britain placed Eswatini under its direct jurisdiction as a Protectorate and repeated representations especially relating to land issues by the King and his Councilors which affected the political process, were rebuffed.

Nevertheless, the Eswatini independence Constitution was promulgated by Britain in November 1963 in terms of which a legislative Council and an Executive Council were established. This development was opposed by the Swazi National Council (ligogo), as it was not in accord with the wishes and aspirations of the Swazi Nation.

Despite such opposition, elections took place and the first Legislative Council of Eswatini was constituted on 9 September 1964. Changes to the original constitution proposed by the Legislative Council, were accepted by Britain and a new Constitution providing for a House of Assembly and Senate, was drawn up. Elections under this Constitution were held in 1967.

Location Situated in Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa 26°30'S, 31°30'E
Area 17,363 km²
Land boundaries 535 km
Borders Mozambique 105 kms, South Africa 430 kms
Climate Highveld; 5000 km² with temperate climate suitable for afforestation.Middleveld; 5000 km², abundant rainfall in summer with good grazing and fertile soils for crops.Lowveld; 6500 km² typical African bushveld,with intense sugarcane farming under irrigationLubombo plateau runs along the eastern border
Elevation extremes lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m highest point: Emlembe 1,862m
Natural resources Coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use arable land: 11%permanent pastures: 62%, forests: 7%
Irrigated land Approx 1000 km²
Environmental Limited supplies of potable water; wildlife under threat issues because of excessive hunting;overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion;Party to international agreements on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Desertification, Law of the Sea
Population 2017 1,093,238
Age structure 0-14 years: 44.4% (male 204 705; female 208 424) 15-64 years: 52.5% (male 221,350; female 262,559) 65 years and over: 3.1% (male 12 247; female 17,015)
Population growth rate 2.9%
Birth rate 36.4 births/1,000 population
Death rate 7.6 deaths/1,000 population
Sex ratio At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years and over 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.89 male(s)/female
Infant mortality rate 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth total population: 60 years male: 58 years female: 63 years
Total fertility rate 4.5 children born/woman
Ethnic groups Swazis 97%, European 3%
Religions Protestant 65%, Muslim 10%, Roman Catholic 5%, indigenous beliefs 30%
Languages English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwazi (official)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 76.7% male: 78%female: 75.6%
Government type Monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital Mbabane; Lobamba is the royal and legislative Capital
Administrative divisions 4 Regions; Hhohbo, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence 6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution Independence Constitution of 6 September 1968 suspended 12 April 1973; a new parliament convened on 13 October 1978; a Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), has submitted proposals for a new Constitution to the King
Legal system Based on Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts
Suffrage 18 years of age
Executive branch Head of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
Administration Head of government: Prime Minister H.E. Absalom Themba Dlamini
Legislative branch Bicameral Parliament, with House of Assembly and Senate (30 seats 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
Elections: House of Assembly; last held 16 and 24 October 1998
Election results: House of Assembly; balloting is done on a non-party basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round.
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by His Majesty the King
International Organisation participation ACP, AFDB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WtrO
Diplomatic representation abroad UK, USA, RSA, Taiwan(ROC), Germany, Mozambique, Republic of Cyprus, Denmark and Norway, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Indonesia, European Union (EU)
Diplomatic representationin Eswatini UK, USA, RSA, Taiwan(ROC), Mozambique.
Flag description Three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
GDP- (2018) US$ 11.496 billion
Per capita- (2018) US$ 9,893
GDP; composition by sector(2001) Agriculture: 10%Industry: 46.7% Services: 43.4%
Inflation rate 12.6% (2002)
Labor force Private sector 69%, public sector 31%(2001)
Unemployment rate 24.8% (2016)
Budget Revenues Expenditures
Industries Textiles, wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates
Electricity production 375 million kWh
Electricity consumption 198 million kWh
Electricity exports 852 million kWh (to Mozambique)
Electricity imports 701 million kWh (from South Africa)
Agriculture Sugarcane, cotton, maize, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts, cattle
Exports $881 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports commodities Soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, citrus and canned fruit
Exports partners South Africa 65%, EU 12%, Mozambique 11%, US 5%
Imports commodities Motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports partners South Africa 84%, EU 5%, Japan 2%, Singapore 2%
Debt external As a % of GDP was less than 20% in 2006
Currency Emalangeni
Exchange rates 1 Emalangeni = 1 Rand 1 US $ = 14.6 Emalangeni (30.10.2018)
Fiscal year 1 April 31 March
Telephones fixed lines 40,000
Telephones mobile 70,000
Internet country code sz
Railways Total: 297 km
Highways Total: 3,000 km
Paved 900 km
Unpaved >2500 km
Airports Matsapha International Airport, King Mswati III International Airport
Border Posts 10 with RSA, 5 with Mozambique